What in the world is CERT all about? Well, the initials, C.E.R.T. stand for Community Emergency Response Team. You can see a few different tools below that Certified CERT people will use in a disaster. We as neighbors, friends, and family need to learn how to work together in the event of an emergency. A group of neighbors took the eight-week course and we really did learn some great tools to use after a natural disaster or unforeseen emergency.
We also need to have the physical tools as well, in order to help each other. We are NOT doctors or nurses, but we need to know how to help our neighbors, friends, and family until help arrives, such as government agencies and medical personnel. It could be a few hours, a few days or a few weeks in the most severe situations. None of us know when help may arrive. We NEED to be able to take care of ourselves. We can’t always depend on our government or local authorities, they can only do so much.
Why Every Community Needs CERT
Let me give you some statistics for OUR area in Southern Utah. These statistics are a few years old, but none the less, please look at these numbers in the St. George, Utah (Washington County) area. We have on average 140,000 people living here. Washington County has 17 ambulances, 46 fire trucks, 204 police cars. We have two hospitals with 145 beds available. These numbers are scary, we can’t depend on anyone but ourselves. Please check out your local numbers. You might just be as surprised as I was when I saw the reality of the situation.
My husband and I both got certified to help our neighborhood. We called a few neighbors to do it with us. We could only talk three people into doing the class. Here’s the deal, I have no medical training, but I can organize just about anything. I thought to myself, if we could get twenty people to join us, our neighborhood would be in better shape than it was before the classes.
Well, we have 5 people in our neighborhood trained now. I am thankful to the other three people who will help us if needed. Most emergency or medical people will be at the hospitals or other emergency set up areas when a disaster hits.
What’s In A CERT Bag or BackPack
The backpack on the left above is actually my bag. The one on the right is my emergency bag with supplies. My husband has his own bags which I will show below. He carries the medical supplies. We both have several duplicate items because we might not be in the same area all the time. We have slowly added emergency items to the bags as our budget allowed.
Here are the contents in my CERT backpack: a book to inventory homes and people, different colors of tape to mark the assessment of the injured people (red=needs immediate help, yellow=delay/not immediate, green means they are ok and may not need much assistance, and the black means they are the worst off and may be dead – Note: we’ll discuss triage and the use of the tape in more detail below), hardhat,
Berkey Sports Bottle for filtering water, goggles, headlamp, work gloves, and a 4 in 1 tool (shown below), CERT vest, light sticks and scissors, N95 masks. My N95 Masks: 3M 8000 Particle Respirator N95, 30-Pack or 3M 8511 Particulate N95 Respirator with Valve, 10-Pack
We all need to be aware of how and where to shut off our water, electricity and gas lines. We also need to know where to shut off our water inside our homes. Of course, we would never shut off gas unless we can smell gas or a fire is coming our way, common sense needs to be used. I recommend everyone get the tool “On Duty” for shutting off gas lines, water lines, etc. It is a 4 in 1 tool. This is it: On Duty Emergency Gas & Water Shutoff 4-n-1 Tool for Earthquakes, Hurricanes, Fires, Floods, Disasters and Emergencies
Mark’s ( my hubby) CERT bag has all the medical supplies we will need until help arrives if it arrives. I know of two nurses and one doctor in our neighborhood. Of course, I do not know everyone that lives in the subdivision. The items shown below are in my bag:
Nitrile gloves, N95 masks (you can never have enough of them), BandAids, yellow chalk, yellow caution tape, paint sticks for makeshift splints. Update on the bags. We took a suturing class by a doctor to show us how to suture deep and shallow cuts if we had to do it. We now have two suture sets included in our bags. I have added a stethoscope and several surgical scissors and bandages we might need.
Items like bleach will be critical if the sewer lines are broken. We will need black bags for trash, body bags to tag or label with the name (if we know the name). I was really disappointed with our HOA where I live after I asked for a list of the families that lived there. I understand the privacy stuff, but I can only help those people who I know.
I cannot waste any time on homes that appear empty when I know people live in certain houses. I wanted the list so I could ask people for their next of kin. I know my kids would want to know I was okay if I was hurt and unable to communicate.
Basics of CERT
This information is taken out of my Citizens Corp-CERT Participant Manual, I just modified the script to personalize it more.
1. You basically gather facts regarding the disaster, what has happened and how many people are involved.
2. Assess and communicate the damage, walk around the area and determine what has happened to a house or building you are assessing.
3. Consider probabilities, what is likely going to happen now or may happen through cascading events.
4. Assess your own situation, are you in immediate danger? Can you handle this situation or have equipment that you need?
5. Establish priorities, our lives at risk? Can you help? Remember, life safety is the first priority.
6. Make decisions, base your decisions on the answers to steps 1 through 3. Establish priorities.
7. Develop plans of action, develop a plan that will help you accomplish the priorities whether verbal or if more complex write them down.
In the CERT class, we all learned how to have a buddy with us to assist in putting out a fire. I must tell you those fire hoses are very very heavy. That was probably the most exciting thing I learned during our training. You sweep the hose to put out the fire.
Here are some interesting facts about regular fire extinguishers we have at home, in the garage or the car. All fire extinguishers are labeled with certain labels as to which classification of fuel the extinguisher will be effective:
1. Class A Fires: Ordinary combustibles like paper, cloth, wood, rubber, and many plastics
2. Class B Fires: Flammable liquids like oil, and gasoline, charcoal lighter, kerosene
3. Class C Fires: Energized electrical equipment like wiring or motors. Once the electricity to those are turned off the becomes a Class A
4. Class D Fires: Combustible metals like aluminum, magnesium or titanium
So when you purchase a fire extinguisher it is extremely important to identify the type of fuel to select the correct extinguisher you think may be best for your personal situation to do the job correctly.
One of the more interesting parts of the CERT class dealt with the term triage, which is a term that means to”sort.” Triage isn’t always necessary, but during triage, the victims of a disaster are evaluated, then sorted by the urgency of the treatment needed, and then set up for immediate or delayed treatment.
Triage is used extensively in military maneuvers and has been shown to be very effective in situations where:
* There are many more victims than rescuers.
* There are limited resources.
* Time is critical.
You use triage as soon as possible after victims are located or rescued. During triage victims’ conditions are evaluated and they are prioritized and labeled (tagged) into at least three categories:
* Immediate (I): The victim has life-threatening injuries like blocked airway, heavy bleeding or shock, that demand immediate attention to save their life. There is an urgent need for rapid, life-saving treatment. You can use two approaches to tag the victim: the first would be to put some red tape on the victim, the other would be to write an “I” on the victim with some kind of marker. I guess another option would be to attach the red tape and then mark the tape with the “I”, then there wouldn’t be any question.
* Delayed (D): In this case, the injuries do not jeopardize the victim’s life. The victim may require professional care, but treatment can be delayed. Here you tag with yellow tape and/or mark them with a “D”.
* Dead (DEAD): Here you note that there is no respiration after two attempts to open the airway. Because CPR is a one-on-one type of care and is so labor-intensive, CPR is not performed when there are many more victims than there are rescuers and you need your people resources applied to those who can survive the disaster.
One other tag to consider is a green tag that identifies the individual as in reasonably good/ok condition and not needing care.
The CERT program has the goal to do the greatest good for the greatest number of people. The process may seem to be a little arbitrary, but it isn’t a heartless exercise, you really are trying to help those needing the most assistance in the fastest manner possible.
The victims are then taken to the designated medical treatment area (immediate care, delayed care or morgue). If you’ve had time to label the treatment areas with “I”, “D” or “Morgue” you can use any spontaneous volunteers or the less injured to help move the victims to these areas as appropriate.
There are special procedures to follow when conducting triage as listed below:
* Step 1: Stop, Look, Listen and Think. Before you start, stop and size up the situation by looking around and listening to observe and listen to what is going on around you and the victims. THINK about YOUR safety, capability, and limitations, and decide if you will approach the situation, and if so, how you’ll perform what is necessary.
* Step 2: Conduct Voice Triage. Begin your efforts by calling out as follows: “Emergency Response Team. If you can walk, come to the sound of my voice.” If there are survivors who are ambulatory, instruct them to stay at a designated location and continue with your triage process. There may be victims present who can provide useful information about the disaster at hand, unique issues about the location or building involved, and specific information about other possible victims that can’t be immediately observed.
* Step 3: Start Where You Stand and Follow a Systematic Route. Start with the closest victims and work outward in a systematic approach to cover the area as quickly and effectively as possible.
* Step 4: Evaluate Each Victim and Tag them. As mentioned above, “I” = immediate, “D” = delayed, or “DEAD”. Remember to include those who may be walking around but are still wounded/injured.
* Step 5: Treat “I” Victims Immediately. Initiate airway management, bleeding control and treatment for shock for the “I” victims.
* Step 6: Be Sure to Document the Triage Results. Outline how resources were deployed, detail the victims’ locations and record how many casualties were assisted under each category of severity.
Although we are all concerned about the victims in a disaster situation, the rescuer’s safety is most important during triage. Proper protective equipment is vital so you don’t endanger your own health. If you get hurt your ability to help others is limited. If you come in direct contact with other’s blood there may be long-term consequences. Take proper precautions!
Finally, consider helping to organize a CERT class in your neighborhood so all interest can benefit from the great training being offered. Check with your local police or fire department to see what it would take to put the CERT class together, then get busy and promote the class to everyone you can. It will be worth your efforts. The CERT book alone is worth the price of the class and the CERT backpack is a bonus. We learned a lot in the awesome class!
You might want to go check out “The Volunteer Protection Act of 1997”: The Volunteer Protection Act of 1997 signed by President Clinton(https://www.npccny.org/info/gti2.htm).